The Genesis of Energy on the Sun
Constant complex atomic reactions (nuclear fusion reactions, for extra credit ) are taking place on our sun called Proton-Proton chain reactions. During these reactions, Hydrogen (H) atoms are combined together to create isotopes of Helium (He). See the image below (note: MeV denotes megaelectron volts, a measure of electric energy). The result generates electricity that radiates all the way to Earth. The resulting He isotopes undergo more atomic reactions that involve Beryllium and Lithium, further resulting in a release of energy. The sun's energy is radiated to Earth in the form of electro-magnetism.
In one form or another, the energy that you use comes from the sun's electro-magnetic ray. The food that you eat transforms the sun's energy during photosynthesis and uses it to create mass (e.g. glucose sugar in plants) storing energy that your body uses when you consume and digest your food. The stored energy is also passed to your body when you consume fish and animals that eat plants.
So What Does this Have to do with Technology?
The energy that you use to power devices like your phone, TV, and computer also originates in the sun. Depending upon where you live in the world, your main source of electrical power varies. The main sources of fuel that we use in KY are coal power and natural gas (to power our homes and charge battery powered devices) and petroleum-based gasoline (to power our transportation).
Coal and oil are fossilized versions of plant and animal matter that have undergone extreme heat and pressure for millions of years. Energy in the form of heat is generated when we burn those substances, and we use that to generate electrical energy (for more on this, stay tuned for the post on Copper). So when you use your computer to update your status or play a video game, the energy that is needed to power the device originates in the Hydrogen and Helium reactions on the sun.
Alternative Ways to Harness the Sun's Energy
Since there is a limited amount of fossil fuels left on Earth, scientists have been designing alternative ways to harvest energy from the sun's rays.
The most direct way is through solar-powered energy which can be divided into two categories. First, passive solar energy harnesses just the heat given off from the sun's rays and concentrates that energy to heat water or a greenhouse, etc. Second, scientists use photovoltaic panels to actively transform the energy in the sun's rays into electricity that can be used to power batteries.
Biofuels, like bio diesel are made from low-cost, mass produced sugary plant substances like sugar cane, corn and soy. The sun's energy is stored in the plant's sugars and is distilled into a purified ethanol and used to power machines and automobiles.
Onyx Photovoltaic Estimation is a cool, free app that uses your phone's screen to estimate the amount of power that a photovoltaic panel would generate at any location.
There is a diverse world of alternative energy that is constantly changing due to technological improvements. Here's a cool app to keep you up to date from Renewable Energy World:
(Montage of alternative sources of energy: wind, hydropower, and photovoltaic cells)
Here's an extra credit question for your Teen Summer Reading activity point: how are wind-powered and geothermal electricity also forms of the Sun's energy?
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Meet Standish Treadwell. He has two different colored eyes. He canít read well. He canít write well. He isnít considered to be very bright. But after his parents were taken from him, Standish starts seeing things in a whole new way. With help from his friend Hector, his world begins to brighten. Although it may not be much, Standish finds hope in his grandfather and the Moon Man for the future. In hopes of discovering whatís being hidden by the Motherland, Standish and Hector venture to the other side of wall. What they find will blow you away.
An absolutely stunning read. I defy anyone to read this and finish with dry eyes.
If you read Maggot Moon let us know what you think. Hate it? Love it? Ambivalent? Weirded out? I would love to hear a teenís point of view of this book.
-Heather Lee, Children's Librarian, St Matthews Branch
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From June 1st through August 10th, 2013, teens grade 6 through 12 can participate in the library's summer reading program.
All participants who complete the program will receive the following:
- Free Messenger Bag
- Free passes to the KY Science Center, Locust Grove, Rauch Planetarium, Lousville Bats Baseball game, Squire Boone Caverns
- Free class at Hwang's Martial Arts
- Free Frosty from Wendy's
- Free Lemon Ice from Fazoli's
- Free passes to select UofL sporting events
All completed participants will be entered into our grand prize drawing for a chance to win:
- $100 gift card to Barnes & Noble Book Store
- Netbook Computer
- UofL Football Tickets
To complete the summer reading program, teens need to fill out and return the summer reading form after reading 6 books,eBooks, magazines, or graphic novels and completing 1 activity (such as attending a library program or commenting on our Teen Blog). Forms may be picked up and dropped off at any LFPL location during our normal operating hours. Click here to find a branch near you.
For a full list of teen programs, click here .
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Next week (June 1) marks the beginning of LFPL's summer reading for kids and teens and the themes for each are science-related: 'Build Your Brain' and 'Reading is Elemental' (respectively). For the entirety of summer reading we are going to look at a variety of science subjects on the teen blog.
For this post we are going as far out as we can possibly go: outer space! Below are several free resources to explore the entire universe:
Resources for Viewing the Night Sky
Google Earth (View>Explore>Sky, Mars, Moon) is a great place to start finding your place in our universe. Users can view pictures and find links to educational resources directly from a 3D map. Look at terrain features for Mars and take a virtual tour of the Apollo landing mission on the moon.
Stellarium will create a realistic view of the night sky in real time for any location on Earth. View constellations from all over the world including many different cultures.
Celestia is a 3D space travel simulator that allows you to travel through their extensive collection of astronomical bodies. View close ups of planets from our solar system and see the interactions of all objects at any point in the universe's history. Both NASA and the European Space Agency (ESA) utilize Celestia for outreach and public education.
WorldWide Telescope was developed by Microsoft and displays a 3D map of the universe taken from the Hubble telescope and nearly a dozen Earth-bound scopes. Download the Windows client or use the browser-based viewer.
Skychart (Cartes du Ciel) lets you turn your computer into a planetarium by mapping and labeling planets, stars and constellations. Overlap photographs to get a closer look at each object.
Aladin is a great tool for researchers that lets you browse through maps, images and dozens of databases of scientific research.
Louisville Astronomical Society - Since 1931, the LAS has been gazing and educating Louisville on our solar system and beyond. They offer monthly public star viewing at their Urban Astronomy Center located at E.P. Tom Saywer Park.
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Some of you may be wondering, 'so how do the pros do it?' This week we will explore that question and give you the tools that you need to make and distribute your own apps.
Now that you have had a bit of time to key around with different programming languages, let's talk about what to do with the skills that you have begun to develop. We will discuss putting your skills to work through computer and mobile app development, but keep in mind that your skills are not limited only to building apps.
Apps are typically self-contained programs that perform a series of tasks related to the same overall function. Apps all have some sort of graphical user interface (GUI)--which is a fancy way of saying the buttons on the screen that the user pushes and the content being displayed.
Operating systems for devices have evolved to include easy access to a marketplace (Apple App Store, Google Play, and the growing Windows Store) rich with free and low-cost apps.
There is currently quite a bit of free software available designed to create apps for a variety of marketplaces, and the software is aimed at professional developers and hobbyists alike.
Though development varies across platforms, the basic concepts are all the same. Each platform has a specific set of tools called a software development kit (SDK) for creating apps. Those tools usually include the following: code editor, interface builder, frameworks (prefab code libraries), code debugger, a simulator that gives you a live test of your app, and some way of measuring how your app performs on a specific device.
To integrate all the tools, programmers utilize an integrated development environment (IDE). It may be helpful to think of the SDK as the tools necessary for building an app, and the IDE functions like the workbench keeping all the tools together and at close reach.
Many apps also require an application programming interface (API) to communicate to an operating system, a database, or some other piece(s) of software.
Below is a list of resources broken down into three popular development platforms Android, iOS, and Windows. Getting started can be a bit tricky, so I have included getting started resources and tutorials. The image above features an infographic detailing the general workflow for building an app. In the tutorials below, you will find similar charts more specific to your needs.
MIT App Inventor - this browser-based IDE runs on Java and is a great to start. Tutorials found here.
Eclipse IDE and Android SDK (Bundle) - a more robust IDE from Eclipse
Building Your First App Tutorial - get started with installing and developing with this tutorial
iOS Developer Center - sign up and start making iPad, iPod and Mac apps
XCode - Apple's IDE and programs are written in Objective-C
ManiacDev - a one-stop for new and professional developers alike with libraries and tutorials
Visual Basic Express - Microsoft's IDE and apps are typically written in C# or C++
SQL Server Express - Microsoft provides you with a free database engine to power your apps
C# Tutorials - to get you started making apps with VS
MDSN - Microsoft's developer network with all the resources you need
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